International Tax Corner





  • Key Dates for Australian Fiscal Year (Tax Year) [read]



  • The term Crypto-Asset means a digital representation of value that relies on a cryptographically secured distributed ledger or a similar technology to validate and secure transactions. [read]


Central Bank Digital Currency 

  • The term “Central Bank Digital Currency” means any digital Fiat Currency issued by a Central Bank.




Fiscal year


Income tax China H.K.SAR Taiwan the U,K.
Individual from 1 Jan to 31 Dec From 1 April to 31 March next year from 1 Jan to 31 Dec From 6 April to 5 April next year
Company/Corporation from 1 Jan to 31 Dec From 1 April to 31 March next year from 1 Jan to 31 Dec From 1 April to 31 March next year


Hong Kong SAR

  • Ordinary resident and temporary resident for purpose of personal assessment [read]
  • Reporting by Trust Companies and Trusts under Hong Kong's CRS rules [read]
  • Recent Developments in Hong Kong's Exchange of Information Rules [read]


Inclusive Framework

  • members of the OECD/G20 Inclusive Framework on BEPS [read]
  • output legitimacy deficit [read]


Inheritance Tax (IHT) - U.K.

  • Inheritance tax threshold (nil rate band)  - from 18 March 1986 to 5 April 2028
  • Residence nil rate band (IHT additional threshold) [read]
Inheritance Tax thresholds — from 18 March 1986 to 5 April 2028
From To Threshold (nil rate band)
6-Apr-09 5-Apr-28 £325,000
6-Apr-08 5-Apr-09 £312,000
Inheritance Tax additional threshold (residence nil rate band) — from 6 April 2017
From To Additional threshold (residence nil rate band)
6-Apr-20 5-Apr-28 £175,000
6-Apr-19 5-Apr-20 £150,000
6-Apr-18 5-Apr-19 £125,000
6-Apr-17 5-Apr-18 £100,000

Any residence nil rate band (RNRB) that’s not used when someone dies can go to their spouse or civil partner’s estate when they die.

See HMRC "transferring unused residence nil rate band for Inheritance Tax". [read]

See how one can reduce the amount of IHT paid. [read]


Pension and tax saving in the U.K.

  • Tax on the private pension [read]
  • Tax relief on pension contributionst [read]
  • Comparing UK pension with others [read]

“Relevant Crypto-Asset”

  • The term “Relevant Crypto-Asset” means any Crypto-Asset that is not a Central Bank Digital Currency, a Specified Electronic Money Product or any Crypto-Asset for which the Reporting Crypto-Asset Service Provider has adequately determined that it cannot be used for payment or investment purposes. See also Crypto-Asset Reporting Framework & 2023 Update to the CRS. [read]


Specified Electronic Money Product - the term “Specified Electronic Money Product” means any Crypto-Asset that is:

  1. a digital representation of a single Fiat Currency;
  2. issued on receipt of funds for the purpose of making payment transactions;
  3. represented by a claim on the issuer denominated in the same Fiat Currency;
  4. accepted in payment by a natural or legal person other than the issuer; and
  5. by virtue of regulatory requirements to which the issuer is subject, redeemable at any time and at par value for the same Fiat Currency upon request of the holder of the product.

The term “Specified Electronic Money Product” does not include a product created for the sole purpose of facilitating the transfer of funds from a customer to another person pursuant to instructions of the customer. A product is not created for the sole purpose of facilitating the transfer of funds if, in the ordinary course of business of the transferring Entity, either the funds connected with such product are held longer than 60 days after receipt of instructions to facilitate the transfer, or, if no instructions are received, the funds connected with such product are held longer than 60 days after receipt of the funds.



Taxable periods  

  • A jurisdiction may adopt the term "taxable period" if its fiscal year or tax year does not coincide with the calendar year. Find them for the following jurisdictions: Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, and the United Kingdom; [read]
  • See also Fiscal year.

Tax-exempt goods

  • An item or activity that should have been taxable but for the specific provision that provides that it is not taxable. "Exempted from tax" has the same end result as "not liable to tax" in that the taxpayer is not required to pay the tax, but they differ.
  • "Not liable to tax" is opposite to "liable to tax", and vice versa.  "Tax-exempt" falls under the sphere of "liable to tax" if it had not been for the specific provision to the contrary. 

Trust by types


There are four major categories of trust: bare trust, discretionary trust, inter-vivos trust, and testamentary trust.


- bare trust

A simple trust, where the beneficiary (or beneficiaries) has an immediate and absolute right to both the capital and income of the trust. The property is held in the name of the trustee (or trustees), but the trustee has no discretion over the assets held in trust. The trustee of a bare trust is a mere nominee, in whose name the property is held. Except in the case of bare trusts for minors, the trustee has no active duties to perform. The trustee must simply follow the (lawful) instructions of the beneficiary in relation to the assets held in trust. A bare trust can be express or implied.


- discretionary trust


discretionary trust, in the trust law of EnglandAustralia, Canada and other common law jurisdictions, is a trust where the beneficiaries and/or their entitlements to the trust fund are not fixed, but are determined by the criteria set out in the trust instrument by the settlorDiscretionary trusts serve a useful function, despite their original source of popularity (tax savings) having diminished in most countries. They still continue to be used for these reasons, among others:
  • to protect improvident beneficiaries against creditors – as the beneficiary has no claim to any specific part of the trust fund, none of the trust fund is vulnerable to attachment by the trustee in bankruptcy of any beneficiary
  • to exercise control over young or improvident beneficiaries (i.e. just like the one set up by the late HK Singer Anita Mui)
  • to create flexibility to react to changes in circumstances
  • in certain jurisdictions, a discretionary trust can be used to protect family assets from forming part of any divorce settlement.

- Living trust vs testamentary trust

  • A living trust is also known as an inter vivos trust. A living trust is one that takes effect during the lifetime of the settlor, which can either be revocable or irrevocable. In contrast, a testamentary trust (or will trust) is one that takes effect following the death of the settlor.

- Taxation of trust in the United Kingdom [read]

  • Trust is not a tax-saving tool in the United Kingdom, but a living trust can avoid the probate process in the event that the settlor passes away.


United Kingdom

  • Domiciled vs non-domiciled resident [read]
  • Statutory residence test (SRT) [read]
  • UK resident property structures: what are the options? [read]


United States 

  • A guide to US income tax treaties [read]
  • I Got 99 Problems and They’ re All FATCA [read]


Withholdable payment (FATCA definition)


Definition of withholdable payment—



In general. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (a) and § 1.1471-2(b) (regarding grandfathered obligations), the term withholdable payment means—



Any payment of U.S. source FDAP income (as defined in paragraph (a)(2) of this section); and



For any sales or other dispositions occurring after December 31, 2018, any gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition (as defined in paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section) of any property of a type that can produce interest or dividends that are U.S. source FDAP income.


See detailed Treasury Reg. [read]


Zero-rated goods

  • Value Added Tax (VAT) ... For a “zero-rated good,” the government doesn't tax its sale but allows credits for the value-added tax paid on inputs (input credit). If a good or business is “exempt,” the government doesn't tax the sale of the good, but producers cannot claim a credit for the VAT they pay on inputs to produce it.
  • For zero-rated exports, the input VAT is refundable. For example, VAT is a tax levied on goods and services consumed in the UK. When goods are exported they are 'consumed' outside the UK and to impose VAT on such goods would be contrary to the purpose of the tax. Therefore, the supply of exported goods is zero-rated provided the following conditions are met: i) evidence (either official or commercial) you must hold to prove entitlement to zero-rating; ii) time limits in which the goods must be physically exported from the UK; and iii) time limits in which you must obtain evidence of export to support zero-rating.
  • Go back to Top of Glossary.